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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
OFFICE QEJNDIAN AFFAIRS ■ - WASHINGTON, D.C. 



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/ /rim ■ -,if-C 



IE Rl A N S AT WORK 

CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF MARCH 1938 



Volume V Number 7 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

The American Indian Sign Language John P . Harrington 8 

F. G. Collett Loses Libel Suit Against 

"Washington Times" 13 

Personal Impressions Of The January 18-20 

Navajo Tribal Council Meeting James M. Stewart 16 

Rio Grande Watershed Adjustment Program 

Is Launched 19 

Indian Colony Held To Be "Indian Country" In 

Supreme Court Decision Charlotte T. Westwood 22 

Gertrude Simmons Bonnin Dies 23 

Crafts Of The Papagos 24 

A Retiring Council Chairman Writes To Commis- 
sioner Collier On The Year' s Work Wesley Poneoraa 28 

CCC-ID Work Has Built Up The Idea Of 

Cooperation Harvey Le Claire 29 

Metlakatla' s Golden Jubilee Early R. Stone 30 

Washington In Indian History Arthur C . Parker 31 

Visitors At The Washington Office 31 

A Missionary Looks At A Trihal Constitution .. Reverend Elmer Burroughs .... 32 

Jemez Chapel Re-Dedicated 33 

We Serve Henrietta K. Burton 34 

Western Shoshone Organizes Sports Program 34 

Origin Of The Sacred Buffalo Horn Foolish Bear 35 

Organization News 36 

Young Yuma Indians Share In Vocational Program 

With Others Of Community 37 

Bettle Treatment Of Trees At Warm Springs Ben C Kautz 37 

Some Comments On The CCC-ID Student 

Technician Program 38 

Change Of Assignment 38 

Correction 38 

From CCC-ID Repor ts 39 




One of the murals in the Federal Building at Anadarko, 
Oklahoma. These were painted hy Kiowa artists: Stephen Mopope, 
assisted "by Spencer Asah and James Auchiah. 

The photograph was loaned through the courtesy of Oscar 
B. Jacobson, of the University of Oklahoma. 







A NefL SkS||/k>r Inlaws 

f ? f 




VOLUAVL E MAR.CH 1. 1936 NUM5ER 7 

Members of the Indian and the Appropriation committees 
in Congress have again been thinking about the Indian Claims Com- 
mission bill. That bill, after passing the Senate, was buried 
under a two to one vote on the House floor last June. 

To the House Indian Committee there was presented, a 
fortnight ago, the record of all Indian claims disposed of by the 
Court of Claims since the beginning of Indian affairs. Newspapers 
publish from time to time the golden picture of Indian tribal claims 
aggregating nearly $1,700,000,000, now in the Court of Claims. To 
the Indians a golden picture, to the taxpayers a frightening one; 
and it is generally added, and is a fact, that a greater number of 
tribal claims, probably equally meritorious, haunt the committee 
rooms of Congress, or simply haunt the minds of Indians who have no 
means to prosecute them. What appeared in the record submitted to 
the House committee? 



Final judgments to date, over and above the Government's 
counter-claims, have totaled $25,684,042. That is, about one and 
five-tenths per cent of the $1,700,000,000 mentioned above. The 
total of claims passed to judgment, according to the list, was 97. 
Of this total, 63, or 65 per cent of all the suits, resulted in no 
yield at all to the Indians. They are recorded in the tabulation 
as "dismissed." 

Each of these "dismissed" cases involves a complicated 
and a discouraging history. First, the tribe or its helpers got up 
the facts. Then a jurisdictional bill was introduced, a department- 
al report was filed, hearings were held in the Senate and the House, 
and a jurisdictional act was passed and was signed by the President 
upon the presumption that real merit existed. Then in every case 
the Department of Justice labored long to prepare the Government's 
defense. The General Accounting Office toiled one or two or three 
years compiling the list of Government counter-claims. Attorneys 
for the tribe spent thousands, even tens of thousands of dollars 
getting ready the Indians* case. Indians waited, and sometimes did 
little else but wait, for the suit's outcome. Then the slow mills 
of the Court of Claims commenced to grind, and ground out a dead 
zero, and the case was back where it started, waiting a. new juris- 
dictional bill and a repetition of the costly operations. However, 
the Indian mind was not quite where it started, but was more con- 
fused, more cynical or embittered. The jurisdictional bill had been 



defectively drawn or had "been rendered ineffective through amend- 
ment; or acceptable proof could not be supplied in the court; or a 
legal claim had been declared not to exist, but only a moral one. 
Such has been the wind-up of 63 out of 97 of the Indian tribal 
suits brought to judgment since the beginning. 

The Claims Commission, as proposed in the bill which the 
House defeated last year, would examine into all tribal claims, 
finishing its work within a reasonable time-limit. It would pre- 
sent to Congress its record and its finding in each case in turn. 
Then Congress would know whether merit existed; whether the claim 
was a legal one, hence adjudicable in the Court of Claims; or wheth- 
er it was a moral one, hence to be settled by Congress. Congress 
would know in advance the total of Government counter-claims; it 
would know with practical certainty the total of the sum which in 
law or in moral right the Government ought to pay. Final settle- 
ment with the tribes could be achieved in fifteen years at the out- 
side; where by present metnods centuries must elapse, with costs 
running to many millions, and then the final settlement will not 
have been attained. Sooner or later, surely, the principles of 
the Indian Claims Commission bill will be enacted by Congress. 



Here are business figures from two reservations which 
live under the Indian Reorganization Act. 



At Mescalero Apache in 1935 the cattle income received 
by Indians was $18,000. In 1937 it was $101,000. The feed value 
produced by Indians in 1935 was $5,000. In 1937 it was $40,500. 
To the above, add that in 1935 most of the Mescaleros lived in 
hovels and ragged tents near the agency and now nearly all of them 
live in good houses out in small communities near the farmlands. 

The results initially have been made possible through 
government loans (I.E. A. , rehabilitation and live-stock to be re- 
paid in kind) totaling $242,200. Of this indebtedness, $58,000 
was repaid last year and there are practically no delinquencies. 
Included in what the loans have produced are the new houses and 
the farm equipment as well as the foundation stock of the Indians. 

Outstanding indebtedness, but not delinquent, $184,200. 

Increase of annual income $118,500. 

That income increase could carry (could pay interest 
and amortization on) a debt of a million and a quarter dollars. 

Good business by the Mescaleros. 

The other case is furnished by the Cattle Trustees (all 
Indians) of Isleta Pueblo. In the spring of 1936 these trustees 
received 1,176 grade Herefords, bulls and heifers, and became in- 
debted (to be repaid in kind) in the amount of $27,870 to the gov- 
ernment. 

3y January 1, 1938, all but $6,270 of the indebtedness 
had been paid off. Live-stock on hand represented $41,385 in 

value and cash in hand was $6,018* 



Otherwise stated, in two years the indebtedness had been 
cut by $20,600 and the assets had been increased by $18,817, repre- 
senting a net profit, turned back into capital, of 100 per cent in 
two years . 

Good business by the Isletas. 



Ulysses Paisano, Indian silversmith and farmer, and trib- 
al statesman, of Lagtma Pueblo, is dead. He had gone with his 
people through many battles and many labors and many victories. So 
gently unobtrusive he was, that few of his many white friends 
thought of him as a man of power; but since I first knew Ulysses 
Paisano - and Frank Paisano and Charles Kie and others of that nu- 
merically small but morally great Indian tribe - in 1922, Laguna 
Pueblo has helped make Indian history. From the defeat of the Fall- 
Bursum Indian bill in 1922, through many intervening events, to the 
banner-bearing soil conservation work of the recent years. Laguna 
and Acoma Pueblos, close neighbors, but often enemies in the past, 
have marched together, and have marched with the rest of the Pueblos, 
in these struggles and achievements of sixteen years . And now 
Ulysses, gentle, hospitable, faithful and wise old man, is gone. 

The race lives; and to the tribal Indian that fact is ev- 
erything. 

And to Gertrude Bonnin, who died at Washington on January 
26, that fact was everything: the race lives on, not dies. The 



Sioux race lives, the Indian race lives; spirit and flesh, the 
Indian goes on. Some facts of Mrs. Bonnin's life are given on 
page 23* A speaker at her funeral stated that she had been the 
representative Indian woman in public life for a generation. 
That, I believe, was a true estimate. 





Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



COVER PICTURE 

The photograph of Bull Lake, Wind River Agency, Wyoming, 
which appears on the cover of this issue of "Indians At Work" is 
by H. L. Dennler. 



AW OKLAHOMA GULLY BEFORE AND AFTER TREATMENT 



CCC-ID Work At Osage. Oklahoma 






















A Gully Before Treatment 




The Same Gully After Filling 



THE AMERICAN INDIAN SIGN LANGUAGE 

By John P. Harrington, Smithsonian Institution 

(Note: This is Section 1 of an article on the American 

Indian sign language. The two subsequent sections 

will appear in early issues of Indians At Work.) 

Talk Without Talk 

The scene is a little room at Anadarko in south-central 
Oklahoma. The time is the early 'nineties of the past century. An 
American with a "bearded, expressive face stands "before an audience 
of those more properly called Americans - the native Indians - ad- 
dressing them in a silent language, which could not "be understood 
if the room were dark, in a silent language of hundreds of words 
cemented together with a flux of motion and facial expression. It 
is a language the speaker has acquired through long years of prac- 
tice from men like those in his audience; they in turn have had it 
handed down to them from their remote ancestors. 

This language is perhaps the greatest invention made by 
the American Indian and is on a par with the invention of writing 
in the Old World. It is the strangest language on earth, for not 
a sound is uttered, yet it moves forward as rapidly as the spoken 
speech on which it is "based. It corresponds to the ideographic 
writing invention of the Chinese rather than to the phonetic writ- 
ing invention of western Eurasia, since each sign in this Indian 
sign language represents a word, just as each Chinese character 
represents a word and was in origin a picture of the concept of a 
word. And this talk without talk is not only based, as we have 
said, on language, but on as many tongues as are represented by the 
men in the room. Here in this audience are Eiowas, Kiowa-Apaches , 
Comanches, Wichitas, Caddos, a stray Pawnee, a stray Osage. All 
these representatives of seven different tribes and languages, whose 
widely different forms of speech would require the lifetimes of at 
least seven devoted linguistic specialists for their adequate re- 
cording, understand the same sequence of signs - and interpret them 
in seven absolutely different spoken languages I The only parallel 
to this in the field of writing is again the Chinese character sys- 
tem, by which individuals speaking eighteen diverse dialects, and 
also a totally alien Japanese, can read the same newspaper while 
different words are pronounced. 



The scene I have described took place at the little mis- 
sion at Anadarko, at that time in the Indian Territory, and the 
white man was the missionary Lewis F. Hadiey, who, according to my 
Indian informants, made these eloquent, yet silent addresses. It 
was one of the most unique happenings in all the history of human 
preaching. Walter C. Hoe at Colony, Oklahoma, used to preach to 
the Cheyennes in the same silent manner used by Hadiey in preach- 
ing to the Kiowas. 

Cards For Learning The Sign Language 

When I first came to the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau 
of American Ethnology in Washington, D. C, a set of cards for 
learning the sign language, prepared by this same Lewis F. Hadiey, 
attracted my attention in the "middle room" , which was lighted by the 
lower half of the great rosette window. These cards bore a diagram 
of a sign language sign on one face and the English word translat- 
ing the same on the reverse face, the idea being to test the learn- 
er's memory by seeing if he could recognize the meaning of the sign 
without referring to the reverse side of the card. This is an old 
device in the history of teaching and one which had previously been 
used in the teaching of the sign language used by the deaf. Hadiey 
also published complete texts of stories, Bible passages, and the 
like, as series of diagrams of signs with sub-linear English trans- 
lations, a procedure which had previously been used only by Mallery. 
This method is a sound one: those who have studied a foreign lan- 
guage know that it is best learned by the study of a connected text 
rather than by that of isolated words. Following this principle, we 
reproduce at the end of this article one of Hadiey 's texts - that of 
the Nineteenth Psalm. 



M. 2 AND 3. 





Elevate, the right index bach out 
in front of the face. 



From Hadiey' s Card System Of 

Indian Signs. The Sign Above Is 

For The Word Man. 



M. 2 AND 3. 



MAN . 
MA L E . 



The. in ii I V of mil/ rreatare. .In. 
old man is sliuirn />// the bent in- 
lie.v he/if into same manner. Tlie 

left initr.V /'.(ANOTHER MAN. 



This Is The Reverse Side Of The 
Card, Which Gives The Meaning 
And Use Of The Sign. 



What The American Indian Sign Language Really Is 

I ha.ve just told how the American Indian sign language 
is founded on spoken language, or rather on a number of spoken 
languages. Let me for a moment get right down to explaining what 
the American Indian sign language really is, even though in doing 
so, it will be necessary to use some unusual words. Plainer than 
what I am about to say, is the diagram below, from which one will 
quicker grasp the interrelation and development of terms. 

We are beings of thought and emotion . Both thought and 
emotion have expression in our bodily condition, posture and action. 
But these non-linguistic expressions put across to other human be- 
ings, unless the setting happens to be right for ready understand- 
ing, only the merest fraction of the definite conceptual and emo- 
tional process which is going on within the brain. It was only 
through a development known as speech, based on the pre-existence 
of sound and hearing, and seizing upon organs connected with the 
lungs and mouth to put them to secondary employment for its build- 
ing, that details of thought and emotion, with only the ordinary 
background of circumstances to help the understanding, first be- 
came plainly expressed. Both thought and emotion have their inde- 
pendent expression in speech: thought develops the non-interjec- 



2 






u 
e 

E< 



Written alphabetic 
sign language 






(4 



\ 



Alphabetic sign language; 
Horse code; various alpha- 
betic codes 



Written American 
Indian sign language 



\ 



Writing, including Amer- 
ican Indian picture writ- 
ing 



American Indian sign 
language; non-alpha- 
betic deaf-mute sign 
language; also signal 
systems with blanket, smoke, 
dust, mirror, fire-arrows, 
horse-manoeuvers, feather- 
wearing 



Spoken language 



Written African 
drun language 



African drun 
language 



Thought 



JUnotion 



TRSS SHOWING DERIVATION 0? AV.i2IC.AII INDIAN SIGH 
LANGUAGE AND SIMILAR D372L0R.IENTS 



10 



tional parts of speech and their putting together, which latter is 
known as grammar and syntax; emotion develops only that single part 
of speech, in contrast to all the others, known as the interjection. 
Thought and emotion are prj mary phenomena. Spoken speech, based on 
thought and emotion, and their inseparable tool and accompaniment, 
must be termed the secondary phenomenon. Writing, in its ideograph- 
ic and phonetic forms, American Indian sign language and other sim- 
ilar lesser developments elsewhere, blanket, smoke, dust, horse- 
running, feather-wearing signaling system, and the African drum 
language, are the tertiary phenomena, based on spoken speech. Al- 
phabet sign language, based on phonetic writing^and written or 
printed American Indian sign language (Mallery, and especially Had-_ 
ley, reproduce such texts, and Hadley includes one written oy an In- 
dian) are the quaternary phenomena. Written or printed alphabetic sisn 
language is the quinary phenomenon. Some signs consist of such na- 
tural gestures that they may be said to have originated contempor- 
aneously with the spoken word, or to have antedated it, but in gen- 
eral the sign is to the Indian understanding based on the word; the 
word being regarded as the main medium, and word and sign inter- 
translatable. 



Sign Is Here Used For A Standardized Gesture 

In speaking of an North American Indian sign langua.se it 
is necessary to define what is meant by sign. A sign, as here used, 
is applied to a standardized gesture, that is, a postural tension 
for expression which has become conventionalized. These signs are 
still or with motion; they involve one or two hands and to a lesser 
extent other body part3, especially facial parts. The signs center 
about the upper limbs and the facial parts. 

An Animal Produces The American Indian Sign Language 



The American Indian sign language attained a vocabulary 
and complexity at least twenty times as great, and judging from some 
aspects, a hundred times beyond the highest similar development 
elsewhere in the primitive world. Just as Indian California basket- 
ry attained a perfection unparalleled in the art of basket making, 
excelling by far any European basketry, so the American Indian sign 
language excelled all other primitive inventions along this line." 
It is true that all over North and South America the Indians had 
some dim approach to a sign language. It remained for an animal, 
the buffalo, more scientifically called the American Bison, to 
cause this rudimentary sign language to blossom into its startling 



11 



development. Strange enough to be figured as an item in Ripley's 
"Believe It Or Not" is the fact that an animal produced the Ameri- 
can Indian sign language. An animal, the buffalo, ranged in what I 
call the core of the continent of North America. The drawing below 
shows thi s range , which is coincident with the fuller development 
of the sign language . The center of this range, the Western Plains, 
where the buffalo persisted longest, i_s coincident with the full - 
est development . Here on the Western Plains, Indian tribes speak- 







V "*«*A/5- """") 


""^s^f^nV^ 


Q " ~^v ^\ 


•^^Sk_ 


K 


y "^~^___^ ^w » 2~\> / y* 









$4 


^ 


.^i ^ \ 




S^V"^ 


Ci " V \ 




^/t%s^ 


R 




IaS ^o ^"^ 









The Original .American Bison Area, 

According To J . A. Allen. 

From "The American Bisons", 

1876. 



The Plains Indian Culture Area, Ac- 
cording To Wissler. (Reprinted 

From "The American Indian", By Per- 
mission Of The Oxford University 
Press.) 



ing some fifteen or twenty diverse languages were jumbled together 
as buffalo hunters. They elbowed each other. The result was the 
sign language. It was a matter of necessity, just as Mallery re- 
ports the development of a sign language among the workers in a 
mill in Pennsylvania, where the din of the machinery made ordinary 
speech impossible. Buffalo hunting was done in the daytime, so 
the inadequacy of sign language in the dark did not retard its de- 
velopment. Night hunting would never have developed it. The In- 
dians of the Western Plains (the Kiowa, the Kiowa-Apache, the Crow, 
the Cheyenne, the Arapaho, the Shoshone, the Comanche, the Black- 
foot, the Sioux): these are the peoples who spoke it richly, and 
whose aged are still our teachers. The sign language at its peak 
is therefore coincident with the Western Plains Culture Area of 
Wissler (see right-hand map above). 



12 



A Text In American Indian Sign Language 

By far the best way to sa.mple and to learn languages, in- 
cluding the American Indian sign language, is oy connected sequence 
of words in a text, rather than "by memorizing mere isolated words. 
For this reason I always like to get a text for sajnpling a spoken 
Indian language. No text is better adapted for such a purpose than 
that of the Nineteenth Psalm. It is one of the poetical peaks 
of the whole Bible, yet is so simple in its wording that it could 
be used in an elementary primer. The original Hebrev; has been in- 
cluded, since it is the base from which all translations must be 
derived. 

The text as here presented consists of six lines: 1. The 
original Hebrew; 2- Transliteration in the Hebrew in our letters ' 
(vowels are pronounced as in Spanish; a with superior circle is pro- 
nounced like aw in English); 3. Literal English translation of the 
Hebrew (lines 2 and 3 were prepared for Indians At Work by Mr. Moses 
Steinberg, eminent Hebrew scholar); 4. The King James translation of 
the Hebrew - this line is underscored; 5. American Indian sign lan- 
guage version, based mainly on Hadley's sign language paraphrase, pp. 
269-272, but with emendations of certain words and additions to the" 
Hadley version of verses five and six; 6. Literal English transla- 
tion of the signs. 

Indians At Work is therefore publishing a conrolete rec- 
ord of the original and the sign language translation of" the Psalm. 
I believe that this is the first document of its kind ever placed 
before the public; it is certainly a most effective one for sampl- 
ing and appreciating the nature of the American Indian sign lan- 
guage. 



F. G. COLLETT LOSES LIBEL SUIT AGAINST " WASHINGTON TIMES " 

The libel suit brought by Frederick 5. Collett against 
the "Washington Times" was tried in the Federal District Court at 
Washington, D. C. on February 9 and 10- 

The suit was based on a newspaper article which digested 
testimony before the House Committee on Indian Affairs on April 4, 
1935 wherein Collett was charged with forging Congressman Clarence 
F. Lea's name to a circular dealing with the Indian Reorganization 
Act . 

After hearing the plaintiff's witnesses, the judge di- 
rected a verdict for the defendant newspaper. 



13 



A TEXT IN THE AMERICAN INDIAN SIGN 



D?p#n onsop h* — tins 



rtospi 



vt 



Knn>iRnflVlm 


m'eapriin 


kivod-El 


The alty 


tells 


the glory of Ood 


The hen vena 


declare 


the glory of God 



The ahy veult 




uma*a80h ySAtiv 

and (the) work of hie hands 

the firmament ahoweth 



"TCP 

magid 
tells 



hie handiwork . 



1 1- TIT 

hSrSkla. 
tho sly-vault. 



^-y^^? ^^ ^ 



1 'laileh 
unto night 



tns'rrrirr: 

y Jhhaveh— daath . 
speaks knowledge. 
shone th knowledge . 



rtadom tells 



rx ipx p* 1 ff-n't ^s saw: :nbip pxrrbss sr Dip rrcpsi bsn 



3. js&ti omer v'eyn d'variur h'il .ndshma kolSm, 

There la no speaking and there are no words without heering their voices- 

T here 1b no speech nor language , where their voice 1b not heard . 



4. B'khol-ha'&rotB yntaa kavem uviktseh thevel 

In all the earth went out their line end in the end (the)world 
Their line ia gone out through all the earth, and their w or ds to the end 



h 



lien all underatand tneir apeech 



^ 



to all the earth the same 



BJT^ «to#? i tia br\H jbtq 



ml j. eh em 
their words 



lashemeeh 
to the sun 



ohel hSbem. 

(a) tent in them. 



xrn 

6". V'hu 

And he 



70?! 



x& 



insno 



J of the world . In then hath he set a tabernacle for the sun 



n 



/~->^f 



\W 



fc'hhethan yotse mtihupStoo 

like a bridegroom goes out from hie canopy. 
iS. £ brlde/p-opm coming out of his chamber 



f &??b^^$g§?<y 



a tent for the BAm. 



like a man married a short time 



\JH2T 



yasis k'glbor 

he rejoices like a atrong man 
and re.lolceth as a, strong ma n i 



-113?3 rrfc trrifc rapp \c?6vri ixria inwojn Drills 



laruts orahh. 

to run an errand. 
tp_ run a £ace. 



6. Lllktaah haahfimayim mutseo uthfcuffitho al-k'taothfim 

Trom the end of the heavenB his going out and his turning around upon their ends 

Bis. gSlflfl forth 1b. from the end of the heaven , and " his circuit to ■ the ends 



a^ „ „ a gaaaa , ^ -^ ^ tt ^j^. ^ CTlllJt forth ^ ££„ the end of_ toe heaven , and Tils circuit tp_. the ends of it: 

■>•! a man strong. he runs a race over nil the akv. *v-.- i.,™ «,« ..*- *.■..„ „-.,-. n„ -,<„,. >.!T via '■.■.^(nr Hi-mmd the-re t.Vin ami oi tns 



runs a race over all the aky. 5^^ the end of the sky hla going out 



his turning around there the end " ^ a ato 



r«i 



inD3 



tinanp 



v'ayn me tar m'hhamatoo. 

and there 1b no .hidden one from his anger. 

and there la nothing hid from toe heat thereof. 



rrrifi rr|T np-pri rn^p 

7. Torath T'hovah t 'alrnah n'shivath 

(The) teaching of Jehovah (ia) perfect returning 

2i£ law of toe Lord Is perfect . converting 



WEtf 



nafeeh. 
the bouL 
the soul: 




nla comes to all tningB. Qod nil law all S>od 



aame makes 




walk the straight 



nns 



mrr took: 



ntfsnp 



rns, 



rre* 



' ''' 



srffi, n^ru^m 



eduth Y 'hovah no « emanah 

the testimony of Jehovah (1b) Believable 

the ' testimony o£ $he Lord Is. sure. 



makes wise 
aafciBg wise 



¥tfe^^V^'i^ 




making 



wise man knowing 



> Plkudey T 'hovSh y • oharlm 

(The) orderlngs of Jehovah (are), righteous, 

Th e gta tut c j of *he tord sro right . 



m ■ samhhey— lev 
they gladden toe heart 



rejoicing th e hgart: 




making the heart giadj 



LANGUAGE - THE NINETEENTH PSALM 



new 



nvr iftn rrvxp :qyj? 



mltsvaa T'hovSh barfch m'irath eynayim. 

(the) comnandihg of Jehovah pure give* light to the eyes. 

The coraa andment of the Lord, is. ESS. enlightening £&•_ ey.ff.. 



UfoZZifrd <&? M ?! 




telle man 



walk !• a clean road 



l. at !lf)t 



r«T 



Wv 

1. Tlrath T'hov&h t'horjh omedeth 

(The) fear of Jehovah (1b) clean (and) atanda 

The foar of th e Lord 1b dean. enduring forever 



J" T 

forevar 



If man fears 



nirr rnint? mew TB? 

lovah t 'horjh 

rehovah (1b) clean (ant 

is Lord 1b dean. 



rrfrtDBtfa rax p-ns :tiit 

mi ohp ' t ey-T 'hovah erne th t aidia ya.-.- U 7 

(tho) Judgnenta of Jehovah true Justified together. 

The .ludgnants of_ the Lord are tny and rt tf-tpjua alt aether. 



t£ 



-■■■ 



God hi a 



he Iteeps heart par* alwayi ■ Ood 



his judgmenta are all right ccd tnt, 



BfTttBD antt 



TBttl 



31 



10. Hanehhmadlm mizahSv uaipa* rav 

The desired onea from sold and from pure gold much 
i;ore to be deal red axe they than gold , yea , th an, much fine gold : 



crm> 



Tou want much 



to receive the Base. Ton want to po 



£3{ 



eeeas them °»re than gold^ 



"tTM^f 



more than much 



■umthukjm midvaeh v'nofeth teufic 

end th* sweet onea from honey and the trickling of honeycomb. 11. Qam-av'dkha nlzhar blhon Vshamram eyfcev raw. 

1. . Also thy servant !• warned in them when they guard stepe many. 

aweeter -i^q than honey and tha honeycomb . » 

^^sr^ . Moreover by them U fchj ufinafij warned : and in ^oepj^n j: of $&S3 there lj great reward 



1 nar.e nore good than food to taste. 



J I A- T I- 

Sr- ' glo s mi-y&vin 

''.1st.; _e a who can unde 

ffho , can understand his errors 



olnietaroa naXeynl. 

from secret toingB clsanso me- 
qip&nge thou m e from aecret faults . 



Da crna ■sp&n. -t^ss 

(tea ml jay ale hhaeokh avd'khj 

Aloo from evil men avoid thy serva_. 

Soeg back thy aervant also from prarx^tacua i'^i; 



know faults of hii heart? Ood 



'rn^iy-bx is airs 

a2 

those 
let then not have dominion over me : 



tpimi scteo tan 

*(•■■; 1- jv ■ it 



el-iim'sh'lu-vi £ 2 eyetham yinlkeythi rav 

shall htve no dominion over me those stronger and cleanse me from alas many- 

then shall. I be uprlrfit. and I shell be Innocent frog th a great tr 



A€^ 3* ^7 ^yf J 



stop their ,>,.„ wlth 



Boy the 




walk the right road the 



day I sm free from ii- . 



TliovSh, 

J ehoTah 



4. Ilhyu 1'rSteon ljirey-fl T'heQron Uu HfoaekhA 
Let he to the irtll Daylaas of oy mouth and the meditation of my heart wore See 
Lrt the mrd. of mjr rnoaa, agd the meditation of my heart, ^ .oco-.tati'e to thj gl 



trurl T'goali. 

V rock and ay r*de«=er. 

2. I^rd . ay_ strength, and sj_ redeaeer . 



Uaie words thoughtB heart mine clean la thy Bight 



■trangth mln» t salTatlon atntK 



PERSONAL IMPRESSIONS OF THE JANUARY 18-20 NAVAJO 
TRIBAL COUNCIL MEETING- 

By James M. Stewart, Director of Lands 



En route by government car to the Navajo Reservation at 
Window Rock, Arizona, from Fort Duchesne, Utah, where I had been 
discussing with the Ute Indians their land problem, I began to 
think back over the numerous Navajo councils I have attended and 
to trace in my mind the various changes wrought in the administra- 
tion of the Navajo Area and in the thinking and attitude of the 
Navajo people themselves to those changes. 

Beginning in 1931, at Fort Winga.te, New Mexico, I at- 
tended my first Navajo tribal council meeting. At tha.t time the 
council was composed of twelve delegates constituting the voting 
power and twelve alternates who were without voting power but who 
were available to take the respective place of any regular dele- 
gate unable to be present . The chairman of the council at that 
time was Deshna Clah Chischillige. At that time the Navajo Area 
was under six independent superintendents. The business transacted, 
was of general routine nature; nothing especially new or disturbing 
to the Indians was involved: topics such as sheep dipping, the need 
for more lands, education, health and so on. Altogether it was a 
period of getting together for visiting not only by the Indians 
themselves, but also by the six superintendents and members of 
their staffs and representatives of the Indian Office; so it con- 
tinued along this line regularly once a year (July 6 and 7 were 
the accepted tribal council meeting dates). 

Since that meeting in 1931 I have attended all of the 
Navajo council meetings. Up until the Tuba City council meeting, 
nothing really profoundly upsetting was propounded to the council. 
At the Tuba City meeting, to the Indians at least, the ogre of 
range control and stock reduction was raised and brought out into 
the open. From that meeting through the subsequent ones - Fort De- 
fiance, Keams Canyon, Crown Point and Window Rock - stock reduction 
was and is the main topic 

In the meantime the administration of the Navajo Area had 
been centralized in one head, who replaced the former six superin- 
tendents. Range control and stock reduction were not being accepted 



16 



by the Navajos for the principal reason that the Indian Office had 
proposed an action which admittedly is necessary and desirable but 
at the time was not understandable or acceptable to the Indians. 
Frankly, the Indian Office did not have the facts fully developed, 
or the administrative arrangements made, whereby the Navajos could 
be shown that stock reduction was not only a wise move but an ur- 
gently necessary one if they were to endure as a tribe, and that in 
addition it was a practically feasible operating plan. 

As a result of raising the range control and stock reduc- 
tion issues and continually hammering them at the Navajos, the In- 
dian Service was not at all popular on the reservation; in fact it 
is said that some of the Navajos have disciplined misbehaving chil- 
dren on occasion by intimating to them -that Commissioner Collier 
might appear on the scene. The formerly dignified Navajo councils 
had become, through misunderstandings in certain quarters, imbued 
with a feeling of hostility and discourtesy to everything emanating 
from the Indian Office. This hostility manifested itself in part 
through heckling Indian Office representatives when they addressed 
the council. The stock reduction issue was the main point of con- 
troversy; there were, however, other contributory factors such, 
for instance, as the removal of 'the several former superintendents, 
toward whom the Indians generally had a real affection and had 
looked for counsel and advice, and also the more or less disre- 
gard by the Indian Service of those chapter organizations which 
had been built up by these superintendents and which were valued 
by the Navajos. 



Previous to this last council meeting, the last one I at- 
tended was in November 1936 . At that time there was a good deal 
of confusion and doubt in the minds of the employees as to whether 
the new form of central administration could be successfully carried 
on. I am describing atmosphere rather than actions, because in its 
formal actions the council continued to be in harmony with head- 
quarters policies. 

With the foregoing 
thoughts in mind, I approach- 
ed this last council, wonder- 
ing if it would be a repeti- 
tion of others and would re- 
sult in a continuing antagon- 

Ficture ; In be- 
tween sessions at the coun- 
cil meeting. Commissioner 
Collier chats with Roman Hub- 
bell, trader, in foreground. 



||3g|" 


iik'A 

m 



17 



ism toward the general program. The first day of the council 
meeting was disappointing. Out of 72 of the new council members 
(the council having been reorganized on a more representative 
basis), only 43 delegates were in attendance and the general In- 
dian attendance was sparse. Gradually during the afternoon other 
delegates continued to arrive and also Navajo Indians in general. 
During the first day miscellaneous matters were discussed, such 
as the application of the Continental Oil Company for reinstate- 
ment of its Boundary Butte lease and enlargement of its present 
lease holdings, the allowing of metalliferous raining on the res- 
ervation and the granting of land-use to missionary groups and 
so forth. When the second day of the council opened there appeared 
to be as many Indians present as at former councils. The attend- 
ance of the council delegates had jumped from forty- three to ap- 
proximately sixty. It was at the second day's meeting that the 
Commissioner arrived. In decided contrast to his reception at 
other recent councils, he was greeted most warmly by the Indians. 
His topic was the ever-troublesome one of range control and stock 
reduction. An all-dav discussion, at which all the facts were pre- 
sented by Superintendent Fryer, Commissioner Collier, and other 
staff members, followed. 

The session continued into the night. At about eleven- 
thirty, after full discussion by delegates from nearly all of the 
districts, the council unanimously adopted a resolution authoriz- 
ing the elimination from the reservation of non-productive live- 
stock - with qualifications in so far as horses were concerned - 
but with no qualifications concerning ewes and wethers. 

All through the first and second days of the council 
meeting it was apparent there had taken place an impres ive shift 
in attitude on the part of the Indians and on the part of the super- 
intendent's staff. To my mind this has been brought about largely 
through efforts of the present superintendent and his staff, who 
have wisely and effectively carried out the policy under which the 
entire reservation has been divided into eighteen administrative 
and grazing districts, and of putting in charge of each district a 
competent staff member empowered to represent the superintendent 
on practically all local matters. This set-up gives the Indians 
a responsible officer close at hand, and makes possible a far 
closer contact than they have ever had before with the adminis- 
trative officers. Through the district representatives on the 
council, local matters pertaining to a ffiven district can and 
are effectively disposed of, whereas in the past the councilmen 
always had to go "back to their people" to discuss matters gener- 
ally affecting the reservation. 

18 



It was apparent to me that the superintendent and his 
staff have the facts well in hand, such as the carrying capacity 
of the range, the number of sheep and goats and other live-stock 
on the reservation, their location and ownership; and through this 
knowledge of facts plus the district arrangement, plus the admin- 
istrative orderliness, they have emerged from a chaotic condition 
to a well-planned moving direction. Adding to this the changed 
attitude of the Indians and of the personnel generally, there is 
a new feeling and a new spirit manifesting itself over the entire 
area; a feeling and spirit that indicate the entire pros-ram is well 
under way. The remark made to me hy one employee - "Mr. Stewart, I 
really feel now that the new program is going over; that we are on 
our way" - correctly sums up the general present situation on the 
Navajo Reservation. There is one thing to remember, however; we 
must at all times progress with the Navajos themselves, and not they 
with us . 



RIO GRANDE WATERSHED ADJUSTMENT PROGRAM IS LAUNCHED 



As the initial step in a comprehensive program of social, 
economic and land-use adjustment in the Upper Rio Grande Watershed, 
the Office of Indian Affairs has accepted jurisdiction over four 
hundred thousand acres of eroding and depleted grazing land in New 
Mexico. Transfer of jurisdiction over these areas from the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior was recently 
completed . 

Approximately 700,000 acres of eroded range land in the 
uppjer Rio Grande Watershed were originally purchased by the United 
States as Indian demonstration projects for the use of Pueblo and 
Na.vajo Indians, for erosion control and for the protection of "the 
watersheds. After the purchases had been completed, the administra- 
tion and development of most of the areas was taken over by the Soil 
Conservation Service. The Office of Indian Affairs subsequently 
designated considerable portions of the areas for use by the sub- 
sistence-seeking Spanish-American population of the Rio Grande Val- 
ley. Other parts of the purchased lands were designated for mixed 
Indian and Spanish -American use and about one- third of the total 
area was set aside for exclusive Indian use. The transfers of jur- 
isdiction of parts of the purchased area to the Secretary of the In- 
terior carry into effect this earlier allocation of use arranged 
for by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Thus the whole purchased 
area of 701,000 acres has been devoted to the use of the two resi- 
dent subsistence-farming populations dependent upon the adjacent 
range for the grazing of their domestic live-stock. 



19 



CCC-ID WORK AT TURTLE! MOUNTAIN AGENCY, NORTH DAKOTA 




This Picture Shows An Old, Rutted Road, Improperly Drained. 




This Picture Shows The Same Road After Construction, 



20 



CCC-ID WORK AT TURTLE MOUNTAIN AGENCY . NORTH DAKOTA 




CCC-ID Crew Setting Up One Of The Windmills 




CCC-ID Crew Working On Dam And Reservoir. This Dam Is Being 

Constructed Below Several Large Springs And Is Already Filled 

With Water And Will Furnish An Excellent Stock-Wptering 

Place For The Indian-Owned Stock In This Community. 



21 



INDIAN COLONY HELD TO BE " INDIAN COUNTRY " IN SUPREME COURT DECISION 

By Charlotte T. Westwood, 
Assistant Solicitor, U. S. Department of the Interior 

The United States Supreme Court on January 3 handed down 
an opinion in the case of United States v. McG-owan, et al., which 
is of great interest to the Indians and the Indian Service. 

In this case, the United States sought the forfeiture of 
automobiles used to carry intoxicants into the Reno Indian Colony 
in Nevada, invoking Section 247 of Title 25 of the United States 
Code, which provides for the forfeiture of conveyances used in in- 
troducing intoxicants into the Indian country. The Federal District 
Court* and Circuit Court of Appeals** had denied the application of 
the statute on the ground that the Reno Indian Colony was not with- 
in the term "Indian country." These courts referred to historic 
definitions of "Indian country" as lands set apart for the Indians 
from the public domain or lands to which the original Indian right 
of occupancy had never been extinguished. They held that lands, 
such as those of the Reno Indian Colony, purchased by the United 
States for Indian welfare from private owners without obtaining a 
cession of State jurisdiction and without formally designating the 
land as an Indian reservation were not Indian country. 

The tract of land known as the "Reno Indian Colony" was 
purchased by the Government under Congressional appropriations made 
"for the purpose of procuring home and farm sites * * * for the non- 
reservation Indians in the State of Nevada * * * for the purchase 
of land and water rights for the Washoe Tribe of Indians * * * " 
and, later, for additions to the Colony. The several hundred In- 
dians on the 30-acre colony tract were under the jurisdiction of 
the Carson Indian Agency and had received the same type of assist- 
ance and guardianship from the Interior Department as had Indians 
on reservations throughout the country. 

The probable result of these Federal court opinions would 
have been not only that the Indians of the Reno Colony were not 
protected by the Federal Indian liquor laws, but that they were not 
protected by other Federal laws applying to Indian country, such as 
laws regulating traders and punishing crimes, and that Indians re- 
siding on other colonies and rancherias and lands purchased from 
private owners without obtaining the cession of State jurisdiction 
would likewise have been without the protection of the Federal laws. 



* United States v. One Chevrolet Automobile, 16 F. Supp. 453 (D.C. 

Nev. 1936). 
** United States v. McGowan, 89 F. (2d) 201 (CCA. 9th, 1937). 



22 



Such a result would have been far-reaching. Since the public do- 
main has greatly diminished and the lands previously occupied by 
Indians have been extensively sold to private owners, the chief 
way in which Indian land holdings may be extended is through the 
purchase of private lands now under State jurisdiction. 

These opinions of the lower Federal courts have now, 
however, been overruled by the Supreme Court. Mr. Justice Black, 
speaking for the Court, said that the term "Indian country" must 
be construed in the light of changing circumstances, that the 
policy of Congress has been to protect Indians in "dependent Indian 
communities" anywhere within the borders of the United States, that 
the Reno Indian Colony was set apart by the United States for the 
use of the Indians and is under the superintendence of the Govern- 
ment and, therefore, is properly designated as "Indian country." 

In indicating the continuing guardianship of the United 
States over the Indians and the similarity of the position of these 
Indians with that of other Indians on reservations, the Justice 
referred to the Indian Reorganization Act and indirectly, therefore, 
to the organization of the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony under that act . 
This recognition of the Indian Reorganization Act and of tribal or- 
ganization under Federal guidance is of great importance in remov- 
ing any doubts as to the constitutionality of that act and as to 
the continuance of Federal guardianship of organized tribes. 



GERTRUDE SIMMONS BONMIN DIES 



Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, wife of Captain Raymond T. 
Bonn in, died January 26 in Washington, at the age of sixty- two. 
Mrs. Bonnin, who was a full-blood Sioux, had been a teacher at 
Carlisle and in the Indian Service, a writer, and was founder 
and president of the National Council of American Indians. 

When he learned of Mrs. Bonnin 1 s death, Commissioner 
Collier said: 

"I have known Mrs. Gertrude Bonnin intimately for fifteen 
years, and I have considered her the representative Indian woman 
in public life. She was thoroughly and intensely Indian, while 
at the same time her culture in the White man's way was wide and 
deep. Mrs. Bonnin was a great orator, and her writings belong to 
literature. She had an immense and accurate knowledge of Indian 
facts and Indian problems. The Sioux Tribe and all Indians have 
lost a real leader." 



23 



CRAFTS OF THE PAPAGOS 




A Papago Basket Maker 

(Note: Adapted from material in the annual report o-f the 
Superintendent, Mr. T. B. Hall, and from other office correspondence. 
Most of the photographs were furnished through the courtesy of Miss 
Ruby B. Zassel of Sells Agency, Arizona.) 

Papago crafts are very much alive today. Papagos use as 
well as sell what they make; and archaeological investigations show 
that the techniaues and materials of today have changed little since 
the days before the white man. 

Bows and arrows for defense; lariats, leather thongs and 
horsehair ropes for their principal industry - cattle raising; pot- 
tery for cooking and storing water; baskets for storage and carry- 
ing - these have been the needs of a desert people. 



24 



Papago arrows are interesting chiefly for the small, al- 
most minute, arrow heads, chipped from the black volcanic glass, 
obsidian. Making them is almost a lost croft. 

Lost completely is the art of jewelry making. Obsidian, 
turquoise traded from the north and coral traded from the Mexican 
coast were the chief materials of the native necklaces, several of 
which may be seen at the Arizona State Museum in Tucson. 

Fine string lariats and horsehair ropes are still being 
made and a comparatively new related development is the weaving of 
horsehair belts and hatbands. 



Pap ago Water Jars And Pottery Figure s 

Papago pottery is almost identical with that of their rel- 
atives, the Pimas. It is of two kinds, the red clay, sometimes 




Papago Cooking Pots And Storage Jars. The Pot At Lower 
Right Is The Traditional "Bean Pot" Of The Papago s. 



25 




decorated with "black- 
designs; and the white 
clay, similarly decor- 
ated. The nearby 1 Mar- 
icopa s also make pot- 
tery, shown in the ac- 
companying photograph. 
In addition to the 
smaller cooking uten- 
sils characteristic 
of all pottery -making 

■peoples, the Paoagos 
Women. These Are Water-Tight, And Are Used make ollas > the ~ large 

As We Use Pans. water~ja7s" so neces- 

sary in a desert country. The porousness of the clay allows the 
water to "sweat" through, and the resulting evaporation keeps the 
water cool even in the warmest weather. In the village of Toapit 
(Stoa-Pifka, white clay), etaws , fat pottery images, with the hands 
folded complacently across their stomachs, are still sometimes made. 
From the same district also come other small figures: horses, rab- 
bits, and even camels - reminders of those unfortunates which were 
set free in the desert country by the Army after the Civil War. 



Willow Or Pima Baskets Made By Papago 



Pap ago B askets Are Of Var i ed Design And Fine Qua! i ty 

The most important, most finished, and most original of 
the Papago crafts is basketry. Panago basket work is of four kinds: 
Plaiting, which is technically "twilled plaiting, with oblique el- 
ements only" - although little known to the outside public is, on 
a-ccotint of the rapidity with which it can be done, a very common meth- 
od by which the Papagos make baskets and floor mats for their own 
useA The leaf of the Palmea, a type of yucca, is the material used. 

But the type for which the Papagos are famed, and that seen 
in traders' stores, is the close coiled basket. This is made of a 
rope of bear grass, mo a , coiled always counter-clockwise, wrapped 
with strips of raw-green or bleached-whi te yucca (hoy), with designs 
done in the black of the cured peeled rod of the Devil's Claw (ehook). 
This is a sewed, not a woven, basket. In a. Variation, known as the 
coarse coiled tyoe, the rope is not completely covered by the wrap- 
ping but is allowed to show through, the wrapr>ing being, in fact, 
merely a tie for the coils. The large grain baskets are often made 
in this way. 

The technique of lace coiled basketry has almost completely 
disappeared. This is an open-work, lace-like fabric, from which the 
kiahas - carrying baskets - were formerly made. The material was a 
cord made from the fibre of the yucca leaf. 



26 



Papa?o and Pima basketry- 
is usually grouped together. Much 
the same technique is employed 
for loth, although different ma- 
terials are used. The coils of 
the Pima baskets are of cat- tail, 
with wrappings of willow for the 
whi te and devil ' s claw for the 
black. 




Pottery Made By Papago ?fomen 



Marke ting Papago Baskets 

In 1933, the Eapago (Sells) Agency set up a revolving fund 
for the purchase of sewing materials, which are exchanged to the 
Papago women for pottery and baskets. This fund has been adminis- 
tered most successfully by Miss Ruby B. Kassel, the home economics 
teacher, in the name of the Santa Rosa Sewing Club. Percale, ging- 
ham, sheeting, flannel and sewing material are bought in quantity 
by the Agency at a discount and exchanged to the Papago s at the , 
price they would have to pay in Tucson or Phoenix. All proceeds 
from the sale of baskets and pottery are deposited to the Agency to 
the credit of the club, and the cycle repeated. During the fiscal 
year 1937, baskets and pottery amounting to $1,678.20 were sold and 
the club made a net gain of $373.20. 

The success of such a venture can be laid to three factors 
an ample supply of a good product, careful management and constant 
work on the part of some responsible person, and a steady market. 
All three factors are present here. The turn-over is rapid - 4,962 
baskets sold in one yetr: thus the funds tied up in unsold goods 
have been reduced to a minimum. Most of the sales are made in 
quantity to a wholesale house. 

Licensed traders on the reservation also make large pur- 
chases of baskets. There; are no reliable figures as to the total 
quantity of basketry produced on the Papago, nor on the number kept 
for home use. It is believed, however, that the Papago Indians pro- 
duced more than 15,000 baskets last year and some 500 pieces of 
pottery. 




Papago horsehair belts. These aire not dyed: hair from tne tails 
of black and of white horses is used, also the reddish color from 

sorrel horses. 



27 



A RETIRING COUNCIL CHAIRMAN WRITES TO COMMISSIONER COLLIER 

ON THE YEAR'S WORK 

From Wesley Poneoma, Former Chairman, Hopi Tribal Council, Arizona 



It has been a long time that I haven't written you any 
message from Hopi-land. 

We Hopi people have come to our destination of how we 
must work in governing our people. Under the Act of June 18, 1934 
we have come to thoughtful that we must organize as that is the 
only hope for us. Since last year in December and January we tried 
many times to organize and elect our representatives according to 
our Hopi constitution and by-laws. Finally here at Toreva group 
of men met and elected their two representatives. Which was happen 
to be me and another man. I just simply his interpreter whenever 
there might be letter comes or some official notices. Election 
was held at Oraibi in January and all the representatives were pres- 
ent. The tribal council officers were elected and I was made Vice- 
President. 

During our short duties we have trouble. We lose our 
Secretary in March and our President in June. That puts more burden 
on those left that we simply all broken to pieces as our most im- 
portant men were off our organization. The people were all stirred 
up wondering what's going to happen next. 

Now its up to me Vice Chairman to take Chairman's place. 
I was worried in deeply sense, more than I ever come to reali-aed 
in this course. I dreamed many times - I am asked to lead my people 
in this new way and if I fall down that means trouble for them. I 
wonder how I am going carry on when these two capable men had left 
me this big job that I have no experience in. But my father came- 
and my old grandpa came; they gave me courage by their words that 
comforted me on my task. 

Some people made fun at first and tried to make me mad at 
meetings. But we had several successful meetings and people began 
to understand what this organization really meant. I've met with 
elders, chiefs, officials and other peoole just as well to talk 
about these things. Now I am finishing my term of one year in 1937 



28 



for my people as Chairman of Hopi Tribal Council. I had many sad 
and good news about this organizations. I hope my people will be 
wise to elect such a courageous man that he will be able to stand 
all temptations and hardships. I have finished my course; this is 
my last month. My speech is poor, my character is poor, my pa- 
tientness is less and my whole knowledge and wisdom is small. But 
I try to do my duty by my government and ray people . 

First time there is always hard for any new ideas. But 
from now on I hope ray successors will have good luck. I am willing 
to help them on as I have my experience. I wish I was there in 
Washington to tell my story to you men concerning our organization. 
But I know you will picture in your mind and see how hard time we 
first had up here. Mr. Collier, my friend, please take my short 
story a real scene of trying to proceed the self-government. 

My superintendent, Mr. Button is a real man that stand by 
and help us. My dear fellow men at Washington we need your help 
and show us the way. Give my best regard to my another dear friend, 
Mr. Chester Faris. In 1932 he was my superintendent at Santa Fe. 



CCC-ID CRK HAS BUILT IP THE IDEA OF COOPERATION 

By Harvey Le Claire, Enrollee, Yankton Reservation, 

Rosebud Agency, South Dakota 



Progress on the Yankton Reservation has been slow. It 
seems as though the Yankton Sioux have found it hard to work togeth- 
er for their common welfare. Instead there has been criticism and 
argument and in all these crises, it has been the custom for the 
younger peoole to let the older ones do the thinking and discussing 
of their tribal problems. 

Two years ago this coming spring, the CCC-ID, then known 
as E.C.W. , first came to Yankton. It was looked upon, of course, 
as another relief set-up to give employment to the needy. But after 
working for the CCC-ID myself, I am inclined to think otherwise. 
During the time CCC-ID has been going on at Yankton we have success- 
fully completed several projects - proof of what good discipline 
and cooperation can do. The younger people, as a result, are coming 
to the front now, with ideas for the future in their minds. We feel 
that we are on our way to our goal of self-support. It was CCC-ID 
work, I think, that helped to start this idea of working together 
among the young people. 



29 



METLAKATLA' S GOLDSN JU3ILE3 



By Early E. Stone, Industrial Director, Metlakatla, Alaska. 




This Monument Dedicated To 
The Pioneers Of" Metlakatla 
By The Council Of Annette 
Islands Reserve, was made 
Of Cobble Stone Picked Up 
On The Island. Father 
Duncan's Cottage In The 
Background . 



The fall of 1937 was of 
special significance to the people 
of Metlakatla, Alaska, because it 
marked the fiftieth anniversary of 
the founding of the village. 

In the fall of 1887, a 
group of about six hundred Tsimpshean 
Indians, under the leadership of Wil- 
liam Duncan, a former clergyman of 
the Anglican Church, migrated from 
Old Metlakatla, British Columbia, and 
landed on the shores of Annette Is- 
land. 

During the fifty years 
since its settlement, Metlakatla has 
seen great changes and steady progress 
Today the community owns one of the 
best canneries in Alaska; it owns and 
operates a modern hydro-electric 
plant which furnishes electricity to 
all the inhabitants of the village 
without cost; water is piped from the 
mountain lakes to the village and 
furnished the inhabitants free; it 
has the finest community hall in 
Alaska; and it has the finest fleet 
of seining boats of any village in 
Alaska. 



Because the community has 
prospered so well, the people decided 
to hold a jubilee this fall in honor 
of the fiftieth anniversary of their landing here. Invitations were 
sent out to all the neighboring towns in Alaska and to the Tsimp- 
shean villages on the West Coast of British Columbia. 

This celebration, which lasted from November 25 to 29 in- 
cluded meetings, banquets, concerts by the town band and speeches 



30 



by residents and visitors, one of whom was Dr. Luella M. King from 
the Office of Indian Affairs, Juneau, Alaska. November 29 was the 
day set aside as Pioneer Day and •unveiling of the new monument in 
honor of the first settlers whose thrift and far-sightedness have 
helped to make possible the happy, prosperous life of today. Sever- 
al boat-loads of friends from Ketchikan came over, both Indians 
and whites, to be present on this memorable occasion. Mayor Talbot 
of that city was the principal speaker. Councilman Murchison told 
something of the early history of Metlakatla, and the mayor, Mr. 
David Leask, dedicated the monument to the town's founders. 

****** 

WASHINGTON IN INDIAN HISTORY 

By Arthur d Parker 

George Washington is regarded by our remnants of the 
Iroquois as one of their great heroes. It was he who softened the 
blows of victory after the Revolution and pledged the Indians their 
old homes in New York. Though they called him "Town Destroyer" in 
allusion to the destructive campaign of General Sullivan, they ven- 
erate him for his mercy and kindly justice. In their annual religi- 
ous gatherings in their Long Houses the followers of the Indian 
Prophet mention the good deeds of Washington and say that he shall 
ever have a lodge at the gateway of the Happy Hunting Grounds where 
he may come to enjoy the Indian's heaven when he wishes. They also 
say that he may have his dog, for with the Iroquois, dogs go to 
Heaven also, being faithful friends whose love for mankind has com- 
mended them to the Creator. 

Reprinted from " Indian Episodes Of New York " , Published 
by the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences - 1935 • 



VISITORS AT THE WASHINGTON OFFICE 



Recent visitors at the Washington Office have included: 
Superintendent Harold E. Bruce, Potawatomi Agency, Kansas; Super- 
intendent Ralph Fredenberg, Keshena, Wisconsin and Herman W. 
Johannes, manager of the Menominee Mills, Wisconsin; John Gates 
and Willis Mountain, Indian delegates from Standing Rock Agency, 
North Dakota; Superintendent Charles H. Jennings, Tongue River' 
Agency, Montana; Superintendent E. R. McCray, Mescalero Agency, 
New Mexico; and Dr. Ira D. Nelson, Sac and Fox Sanatorium, Iowa. 

31 



A MISSIONARY " LOOKS AT A TRIBAL CONSTITUTION 

An Address By The Reverend Elmer Burroughs, Missionary At Yerington 
(Carson Agency) Nevada, At A Missionary Conference In Schurz, Nevada. 



An Indian tribal constitution is a device which, when 
adopted and fully and honestly used, puts the tribe using it into 
a situation where, it almost seems, life is just beginning. 

Upon examination, this constitution appears to he as 
orderly and logical as the Constitution of the United States, ap- 
plicable to its sphere. That really is the beauty of the Reorganiza- 
tion Act and the local constitutions and charters: each local unit 
- each tribe or band - using them applies this authoritative instru- 
ment to the local problems and needs. The old "blanket-law plan" 
back in Washington, for all tribes and bands over the entire United 
States, whether the "garment" fit the local figure or not, had to 
be worn, or nudity and chill endured by the group. This present 
plan turns local problems and needs directly into the hands of 
properly vo ted-in and fairly well qualified Indian representatives 
of the local band of Indians. Those needs and problems are dealt- 
with in truly parliamentary style, so when once voted through, they 
become resolutions and ordinances. How much more realistically the 
need may thus be met than if handled perhaps 3,000 miles away across 
Washington desks; how much more satisfactory to the councilmen and 
tribesmen to have had it all worked out among themselves instead 
of in "canned" form from the Department of the Interior. 

It is true that the Indian constitution calls for a great 
deal of the tribal business to pass before the reservation superin- 
tendent and part of it to the Secretary of the Interior, to make 
it authoritative and effective. There is no reason, however, to 
believe that either the superintendent or the Secretary will block 
many measures shaped up by the Indians. With the great expenditure 
of money for lands, that landless Indians might have homes and scope 
for development and self-support; and the scientific work done by 
specialists backed by the Indian Department on those lands and among 
the Indians, the Secretary of the Interior or reservation superin- 
tendents will not be looking for ways to balk and block the Indians 
in the trend upward and out of ignorance, helplessness and poverty; 
rather they will encourage the Indians in their quest. 



32 



Betterment, development, progress: Yes, that hopeless 
look in the eye of the Indian may change to one of expectation now. 
He has a voice in his own affairs and cooperation on the part of 
sympathetic government people, all the way down from the Commissioner 
to the smallest field assistant! There are now funds available ap- 
propriated by Congress for home improvement, stock, poultry, equin- 
ment, seed; so that gardening, poultry-raising, dairying, sheeno- 
raising, ranching may be carried on. More or less has this ever 
been true, but never with the guarantee of "carrying through" such 
as the organization under the Indian constitution makes possible. 

Besides development along these lines, there is greater 
encouragement for the revival of native arts and industries. Co- 
operative associations will find markets and secure better nrices 
than were possible under the old situation in which each craftsman 
found his own market and "dickered" for prices. 

Missionary cooperation and influence? Missionary effort 
in any field has ever been for full cooperation in every way that 
it seemed possible truly to advance the interests, welfare and 
happiness of Indians. Their interpretation of Christ's commands 
governs their thought and action in the matter. 

Elmer Burroughs 
November 27, 1937. 



JEMEZ CHAPEL RE-DEDICATED 



The chapel of Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico was re-dedicated 
in January by Archbishop R. A. Gerken of Santa Fe, after restora- 
tion of this historic building, which was badly damaged by fire 
about a year ago • 

The history of this chapel runs back three hundred and 
fifty years, to the year 1598, when the first Franciscan friar, 
Alonso de Lugo, visited the Jemez towns. Written records go back 
to 1720. 

As in the old chapel, Jemez Indian handiwork, notably 
wood-carving, plays a part in the building, which is in the simple 
native adobe style. 



33 



WB SERVE 
By Henrietta K. Burton, Supervisor of Home Extension Work 



Blueie Adair Dykes, 
pictured here, rides to serve. 
Herself a three-quarters 
Cherokee, she is using her 
home economics training 
gained at the Chilocco In- 
dian School in her work as 
home aid in the Indian Serv- 
ice in Mayes County in the 
Five Civilized Tribes Area 
of Oklahoma. 

Her days, and those 
of other Service women with 
similar jobs, are full to the 
brim. 

At community meetings, demonstrations and by visits to 
homes, she helps her Indian friends to improve living standards by 
planting gardens, by canning and preserving food, by making cloth- 
ing and bedding out of surplus and discarded materials, by ingen- 
ious home improvements which cost little. She teaches in oart 
through example: the coat she wears in the picture above was made 
from discarded underwear from CCC salvaged goods; her skirt from 
cast-off jackets; and her utility bag from scraps. 




V/ESTERN SHOSHONE ORGANIZES SPORTS PROGRAM 



The employees and residents of Western Shoshone Agency, 
Nevada, have to organize their own recreation, since the Agency is 
a hundred miles from a railroad and from outside diversions. With 
the asset of a fine new gymnasium, Mr. Lloyd E. Lamb, Senior Fore- 
man, CCC - ID, has organized an annual athletic program in which a 
large number of employees and workers can participate. Basket ball 
has been especially popular; six reservation teams and two out- 
side teams for men have been organized into a league which is play- 
ing off a series in which each team plays all the others. Boxing 
and wrestling are also being promoted. Organized sports for women 
have just been started. 



34 



ORIGIN OF THE SACRED BUFFALO HORN 

Told By Foolish Bear; Translated By Arthur Mandan, 
Fort Berthold Agency, North Dakota 



On January 14 Foolish Bear and Drags Wolf, Gros 
Ventres Indians of the Fort Berthold Reservation in North 
Dakota, accepted on behalf of their clan, the Water 
Busters, the return of their sacred medicine bundle from 
Dr. George G. Heye, of the Heye Foundation in New York. 
The Foundation received in exchange a sacred buffalo horn, 
the most valued remaining heirloom in the clan. The story 
of the buffalo horn is as follows: 

Foolish Bear's father's name was Sittingbird. The name 
of Sittingbird' s fa.ther, or Foolish Bear's grandfather, was Dull. 
Foolish Bear is the offspring of these two men, which makes his the 
third generation. 

The story goes that when old man Dull was twelve years of 
age his uncle was returning one day from a buffalo hunt. It was 
winter and the snow was falling. This boy was told to water the 
buffalo horses. On the way down to the river and after he had wa- 
tered the horses, he became scared: he was very timid. On the way 
back he encountered a buffalo carcass exposed on the ground at his 
feet and so he crawled into it, between the ribs, and he stayed 
there all that night . 

The next day he returned to his home. His uncle asked 
him why he had not returned home the night before, after he had 
finished watering the horses. The boy did not tell what had haopened 
to him during the night but just told his uncle that he did not come 
home ; that was all . 

During the night he spent in the buffalo's body the boy 
did not know what had taken place. However, the spirit of the buf- 
falo entered the boy's body. In the due course of time the boy 
smelled incense from a mossy weed around the base of a surrounding 
pine tree. This moved the spirit of that buffalo which was in him 
and it happened that something came out from the boy's system and 
when it cajne out of his mouth it was a buffalo horn. By the sign 

35 



language he indicated what kind of plant should he used as incense. 
When this was done and the incense was burned, the hoy inhaled it 
and the buffalo horn went back into the system of the boy. When 
the boy's uncle saw this, he rebuked his nephew and told him he 
was very foolish and that a stop had to be put to all of this. Then 
the boy told the people to burn some more incense. He inhnled again 
and when he did the tip of the nose of the buffalo was expelled from 
his mouth - then the feet - and the tail - all singly. The whole 
buffalo was not expelled. This marked the termination. 

After this had occurred, that night the boy fell asleep 
and he dreamed that he was inside of a tent and that he heard the 
barking of dogs and the tread of a buffalo coming toward the tent . 
The sounds came closer and closer. When it finally arrived at the 
tent, the buffalo opened the door of the tent with the tip of his 
nose. He told the boy he was doing all this for his benefit. The 
boy didn't want to look at the buffalo, but he did upon request. 
As he stared at the animal he could see it was wounded. It was 
pierced with bullets and arrows until blood was flowing from all 
sides. As the buffalo moved toward the boy these arrows and bullets 
dropped from his flesh. The buffalo instructed the boy to doctor 
his wounds and that thereafter whenever he was injured in battle 
he would be able to heal himself. This the boy did. As time passed 
after this incident and the boy took part in battles and was wounded, 
he did heal himself. 

When Foolish Bear's grandfather, who was this boy, grew 
old and passed on, he passed the horn on to his son as a token of 
sacredness. In turn, when Foolish Bear came to the se;e of 24 years, 
the horn was passed over to him. Foolish Bear is now 84 years old 
and has had the horn in his possession for 60 years. It is the 
moat valued possession of any member of the clan. 



ORGANIZATION NEWS 

Constitution Elections : 

Yes No 

December 18 . . . Confederated Tribes of the Warm.. 181 77 

Springs Reservation, Oregon 

January 12 Kiowa-Apache Tribe of Oklahoma • • 61 62 

January 17 .... Caddo Tribe of Oklahoma 316 .... 33 

Charter Elections ; 

Yes No 

January 7 Reno-Sparks Indian Colony 35 1 

Nevada 

January 18 Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma 45 • • « : 12 

February 7 .... Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma 25 13 

36 



YOUNG YUMA INDIANS SHARE IN VOCATIONAL PROGRAM 



WITH OTHERS OF COMMUNITY 




Joe Miguel 



At the Colorado River Agency 
In Parker, Arizona, a large number of 
the older Indian children are in pub- 
lic schools. In response to the In- 
dian Service emphasis upon training 
for life, the state officials have en- 
riched the high school program to pro- 
vide increased opportunities for agri- 
cultural training, shop training and 
home economics work. Four-H clubs and 
the Future Farmers of America have 
drawn Indian young people into member- 
ship. 

On the left is a photograph 
of Joe Miguel, a Yuma Indian, who with 
a group from the agriculture class of 
the Yuma Union High School, took part 
in the Future Farmers of America pro- 
gram on the Western Farm and Home Hour 
in November, which was broadcast from 
San Diego, California, in November. 



BEETLE TREATMENT OF TRESS AT WARM SPRINGS, HELPED BY FAVORABLE 

WEATHER . SHOWS GOOD RESULTS 
By Ben C. Kautz, CCC - ID Leader, Old Mill Camp, Warm Springs, Oregon 

The cruise for beetle-killed trees on sample check olots has be*n 
completed. These check plots are so situated that the results of the spotting 
on these plots are indicative of the general trend of "beetle infestation on 
the reservation. The cruise showed a considerable reduction in the number of 
beetle-killed trees in comparison with the year 1934. This reduction can be 
laid partly to the treatment by peel and burning and also to the heavy snows 
and cold last winter and to the consequent moisture and summer rains which 
tended to make the trees hardier and enabled them better to withstand the 
beetles' attack. 



37 



SOME COMMENTS ON THE CCC-ID STUDENT TECHNICIAN PROGRAM 



Last summer CCC-ID provided funds for the employment of 
student technicians. Young Indians who had completed a year of 
college work and who showed aptitude for work on CCC-ID projects 
were eligible. Their work varied widely: some served as rodmen 
or chainmen on surveying crews; some did topographical mapping and 
drafting; some helped in location of truck trails and in timber 
survey work; some worked on soil-saving operations and on the con- 
struction of impounding dams; others did clerical work. 

One student, Leonard Chebahtah, at Shawnee, Oklahoma, 
was assigned to the supervision of the recreational and welfare 
program. At the Great Lakes Agency, Wisconsin, Robert Dominic 
supervised the care of a nursery of a million trees. Daniel L. 
Cole, at Flathead, had had two years of forestry work at the Un- 
iversity of Montana; however, he was also a capable cook, so when 
the combination emergency of a forest fire and a sick cook arrived, 
he ran a fire-fighting camp and did a splendid job of cooking. 

Their supervisors reported that these student techni- 
cians did good work and that most of them showed marked improvement 
in their work during the brief period of their employment. The 
money earned helped a number of the boys to return to college or 
training school. 



CHAN GE OF AS SIGNMENT 



Dr. Arthur J. Wheeler, formerly at the Albuquerque 
Sanatorium, has been transferred to the new Sioux Sanatorium at 
Rapid City, South Dakota, which is now being prepared for open- 
ing in the early spring. 



CORRECTION 

On Page 34 of the February issue, a chart was used 
showing the place of cooperatives in Denmark's agricultural 
economy. This chart should have been credited to the Foreign 
Policy Association, Inc., 8 West Fortieth Street, New York City, 
through whose courtesy it was used. 



38 



N0TL5 FR.OM WLEKLY PROGRESS REPORTS OF 
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS - INDIAN DIVISION 



Good Working Conditions At 
Standing Rock ( North Dakota ) The 
crew on this project is working with 
all the effort that they can muster 
and well might they, as the condi- 
tions under which they work are 
absolutely "tops." The whole proj- 
ect is enclosed and heated with 
steam heat. 

I have a crew of men here that 
I will put up against any crew on 
the reservation. When they work, 
they work, and when they play, they 
play. Every man knows his post and 
that is just where you will find 
them any time from whistle to whis- 
tle. Everything runs with clock- 
like unison and I don't mean "mebbe." 
George W. Clark , Concreteman. 

Truck Trail Construction At 



Turtle Mountain (North Dakota) The 
truck trail on the reservation line 
was completed this week. Approxi- 
mately 1,000 cubic yards of gravel 
per mile was placed on this trail. 
Only two miles were finished and 
ready for gravel . Donald Flahart , 
Junior Engineer . 

Various Activities At Truxton 
Canyon ( Arizona) Project E-44 : 
The crew was more than doubled last 
week on this job and the rip-rapping 
of the inside face of the dam is 
progressing nicely. The spillway 
was shot and the rock is being used 
in the riprapping work. Over half 
the dam is in place to date. 

Project J-110: Work was con- 



fined to the installation of cul- 
verts, excavating for a cattle 
guard and removing projecting 
rocks from the wearing surface of 
the road. 

Project B-5 ; The work this 
week consisted of pouring concrete 
around the front support posts of 
the shed; also cutting and install 
ing the back studs. Ross Carman , 
Project Manager . 

Pence Line Construction At 
Cheyenne River ( South Dakot a) We 
have finished fence line between 
townships eight and nine, making 
a total of fifteen miles completed 
so far. Starting from the west 
line of the reservation, going 
east to the northeast corner of 
section four, township eight, 
range twenty from which point we 
are starting south. 

A blizzard swept over this 
district recently, which delayed 
the work for that day. Otherwise, 
the weather has been favorable. 

We are supplied with a good 
grade of posts, 7 feet in length 
ranging from 4 to 6 inches in di- 
ameter at the large end, which 
are sp'aced a rod apart . Earl 
Cummings , Senior Foreman . 

Canal Drainage At New York 
( New York ) The men have accom- 
plished more this week than at 
any other similar period, because 
of the ideal working conditions 



39 



which now exist. The ground has 
not frozen at all and there is no 
water. 

The cut at this point is now on 
an average of about two and one-half 
feet and the snow is ahout two feet 
deep in most places. It is a great 
help because of the fact that it 
keeps the ground from freezing. Jos - 
eph P. Tarbell, Camp Manager . 

Recreation Activities At Crow 
Creek ( South Dakota ) Plans are be- 
ing made for a reading room at the 
Agency. The room will be made by 
putting a partition across in the 
east end of the Exhibit Hall, mak- 
ing it 14 feet by 32 feet. Here, 
it is planned to have magazines and 
books that will be of interest to 
all. 

Our basket ball boys have not 
done so well yet, but as one of the 
boys put it, "There comes a day." 
And we think that after some more 
work together, these teams had bet- 
ter look out. Frank Knippling . 

Soil Erosion Control At Taholah 



( Washington ) The river is down to 
normal '"again so we have been able 
to get further down the river to 
reach the jammed regions caused by 
high water. There is one region 
that will take about a week's work 
to clear satisfactorily. Some pretty 
large trees, mostly hemlock and 
spruce, have lodged in dangerous 
places and have to be bucked into 
about eight or ten-foot lengths so 
that they will not lodge elsewhere. 

We haven't had any trout feeds 
lately but we have had a few salmon. 
One of the boys cornered a salmon in 



the mouth of a creek and finally 
caught it with a volley ball net. 
George Cumm ings . 

Basket Ball Team Successful 
At Rosebud ( South Dakota ) The CCO 
ID basket ball team of Rosebud won 
their first game of the season by 
defeating the fast-ball- handling 
CCC-ID team from Pine Ridge, South 
Dakota. More games are being 
planned for the boys during the 
basket ball season. Toward the 
end of the season the boys expect 
to enter one of the local indepen- 
dent tournaments. Walter Sokolik . 

Fire Hazard Reduction At Tongue 
River (Montana) The fire reduction 
crew burned quite a bit of brush 
this week. This place is on Busby 
Creek. I think we will continue to 
burn brush throughout the winter. 
Charles Littensolf . 

West Branch Bridge Almost Com - 
pleted At Kesheng ( Wisconsin ) The 
West Branch Bridge crew has just 
about completed their bridge. For 
the past week they have been build- 
ing the wings on the buttments. The 
fills for the approaches will be 
made in the spring when the frost 
leaves in the ground. 

The mapping crew is nearing 
the end of the field work for this 
year. The snow is too deep for 
"good going"; so with the close of 
next week, mapping will be discon- 
tinued until next fall. Walter 
Ridlington , Project Manager . 

Fire Hazard Reduction At Sis - 
seton ( South Dakota ) The three fire 
hazard reduction crews have progress- 
ed very nicely. The weather has 



40 



been fair . Some of the crews ' pro- 
duction has been retarded due to the 
steep side-hills where work of this 
type and time of the year, makes 
progress slow on account of snow on 
the ground. 

Each crew has a clean-up man 
who follows the worked areas and 
gathers up limbs, twigs and rubbish. 
He burns this. 

There is now cut, hauled and 
corded, fifty-eight cords of wood. 
Abraham Crawford , Sub-Foreman . 

Shelter Over Grand Portage Creek 
Bridge Nearing Completion At Con - 
solidated Chippewa ( Minnesota ) All 
of the crews, during the past week, 
have shown remarkable progress on 
their respective jobs. This may be 
due partly to the extremely mild 
weather which we have had for the 
past few days, but we believe it is 
due mainly because we have tried to 
place the men on jobs which they 
like, or at which they are most 
adept . 

The shelter over the Grand Port- 
age Creek Bridge will soon be com- 
pleted. The bridge is comparative- 
ly well-protected from snow and high 
winds, due to the rough contour of 
the land on which it is situated. But 
absolute protection from the elements 
must be assured, to allow a reason- 
able margin of security in the case 
of rough weather, for the success- 
ful completion of this project. 

The President's Birthday Ball 
was given ahead of time due to the 
uncertain weather conditions which 
prevailed- The party was well-at- 
tended by the camp boys and the en- 



tire community. The party was held 
at the Grand Portage School and a 
good time was reported by all. The 
proceeds which amounted to $28.00 
was forwarded to the Warm Springs 
Foundation Fund for Crippled Chil- 
dren. Leo M. Smith . 

Fire Hazard Redaction At Red 
Lake ( Minnesota ) Project 185 : The 
graveling crew has been graveling 
this truck trail and everything is 
going along nicely. Good weather 
and good luck prevailed throughout 
the week. There is some breakage 
of trucks on a job of this nature. 

Project 16 5: The small crew 
of men began trail-side fire hazard 
reduction. The progress was good 
and one-half mile was completed 
during the past week. The truck 
with two men are hauling wood from 
this project to the camp. Ten loads 
of wood were hauled to the camp dur- 
ing the week. 

Mr. Kreiner, the Agency me- 
chanic, spent a day in installing 
the woodwork machine in the new 
recreation hall. Mr. Okness brought 
a truck load of odd pieces of lum- 
ber from the Indian sawmill for use 
in classes. Mr. Frisby and Mr. Ger- 
vais visited the camp and were very 
pleased with the camp. 

Telephone Maintenance At Navajo 
( Chin Lee ) - ( Arizona ) Construction 
was started on the seven miles from 
Ganado to Lizard Springs. One and 
one-half miles of line on the Ganado 
end was re-routed and placed along 
the new road site which paralleled 
the old line route. Brackets were 
nailed and holes are being dug. 
Carl Bart el , Telephone Foreman . 



41 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 




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